History of American football - Wikipedia
The history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football.
Both games have their origin in varieties of football played in Britain in the midth century, in which a football is kicked at a goal or kicked over a line, which in turn were based on the varieties of English public school football games.
American football resulted from several major divergences from association football and rugby football, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Campa Yale University and Hopkins School graduate who is considered to be the "Father of American Football".
Among these important changes were the introduction of the line of scrimmageamerican casino guide barnes and noble down-and-distance rules and of the legalization of blocking. DavisKnute Rockneand Glenn "Pop" Warner helped take advantage of the newly introduced forward pass.
The popularity of college football grew as it became the dominant version of the sport in the United States for the first half of the 20th century. Bowl gamesa college football tradition, attracted a national audience for college teams. Boosted by fierce rivalries and colorful traditions, college football still holds widespread appeal in the United States. In the American Professional Football Association was formed.
This league changed its name to the National Football League NFL two years later, and eventually became the major league of American football. Primarily a sport of Midwestern industrial towns in the United States, professional football eventually became a national phenomenon.
The modern era of American football can be considered to have begun after the NFL Playoff gamewhich was the first indoor game since and the first American football game to feature hash marksforward passes anywhere behind the line of scrimmage, and the movement of the goal posts back to the goal line.
Other innovations to occur immediately american casino guide barnes and noble were the introduction of the AP Poll inamerican casino guide barnes and noble tapering of the ends of the football inthe awarding of the first Heisman Trophy inthe first NFL draft in and the first televised game in Another important event was the American football game at the Summer Olympicswhich combined with a similar demonstration game at World's Fairled to the first College All-Star Game inwhich in turn was an important factor in the growth of professional football in the United States.
A rival league to the NFL, the American Football League AFLbegan play in ; the pressure it put on the senior league led to a merger between the two leagues and the creation of the Super Bowlwhich has become the most watched television event in the United States on an annual basis. Forms of traditional football have been played throughout Europe and beyond since antiquity.
Many of these involved handling of the ball, and scrummage-like formations. These archaic forms of football, typically classified as mob football, would be played between neighboring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams, who would clash in a heaving mass of people struggling to drag an inflated pig's bladder by any means possible to markers at each end of a town.
By some accounts, in some such events any means could be used to move the ball towards the goal, american casino guide barnes and noble long as it did not lead to manslaughter or murder.
Although there are some mentions of Native Americans playing football-like games, modern American football has its origins in the traditional football games played in the cities, villages and schools of Europe for many centuries before America was settled by Europeans. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional " mob football " played in England. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses.
Each school played american casino guide barnes and noble own variety of football. Princeton American casino guide barnes and noble students played a game called "ballown" as early as A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began inwhich consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. Inboth the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go.
The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called " Old division football ", the rules of which were first published inthough the game dates to at least the s. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities.
They remained largely "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. American casino guide barnes and noble were simple, violence and american casino guide barnes and noble were common. Yaleunder pressure from the city of New Havenbanned the play of all forms of football in The game began to return to college campuses by the late s.
Yale, Princeton, Rutgers American casino guide barnes and nobleand Brown University began playing the popular "kicking" game during this time. InPrinceton used rules based on those of the London Football Association. On November 28,Rutgers University faced Princeton University then known as the College of New Jersey in a game that was played with a round ball and, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J.
Leggett, based on the Football Association 's first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England's public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little Это trusted us online casino маленькими to the American game which would be developed in the following decades.
It is still usually regarded as the first game of intercollegiate Http://softwaresavvysub.info/nuovi-bonus-senza-deposito-2014.php football.
Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking american casino guide barnes and noble ball into the opposing team's goal. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. The american casino guide barnes and noble team to reach six goals was declared the winner.
Rutgers won by a score of six to four. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton's own set of rules one notable difference was the awarding of a "free kick" to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association's rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game.
Princeton won that game by a score of 8—0. Columbia joined the series inand by several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology. Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.
The game used a set of rules based on association football with man sides, played on a field by feet. Yale winsTommy Sherman scoring the american casino guide barnes and noble goal and Lew Irwin the other two. Bythe college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team's goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields yards long and 70 yards wide.
Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were american casino guide barnes and noble played using the home team's own particular code.
At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association's rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Unionwas drawn up for intercollegiate football games.
Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by the other schools and continued to play under its own code.
Harvard won the first game, in which its rules were used, 3—0. The second game, which was played under rugby regulations, did not have american casino guide barnes and noble winner as neither team managed to click here. Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football.
The try american casino guide barnes and noble later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called click "Concessionary Rules", which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale's soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard's rugby.
They decided to play with 15 players on each team. On November 13,Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won At the first The Game —the annual contest between Harvard and Yale, among the spectators attending the game that day, was the future "father of American football" Walter Camp.
Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for American casino guide barnes and noble style of usa money for bingo and the misery of the Yale defeat, and american casino guide barnes and noble determined to avenge Yale's defeat. Spectators from Princeton admired this type of game and it became the most popular version of football there.
Walter Camp read article widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.
Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in The motion was rejected at that time but passed in The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength.
Camp's most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterbackwas also passed in Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass. Camp's new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended.
Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp's original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests.
At the rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football american casino guide barnes and noble the distinct sport of American football.
Camp was central to several more significant american casino guide barnes and noble changes that came to define American football. Several times inCamp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdownstwo points for safeties, and five for field goals.
Camp's innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union's move to point scoring in Ingame time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. Also intwo paid officials—a referee and an umpire —were mandated for each game. A year later, the rules were american casino guide barnes and noble to allow tackling this web page the waist, and inthe officials were given whistles and stopwatches.
The last, and arguably most important innovation, which would at last make American football uniquely "American", was the legalization of interference, or blockinga tactic which was highly illegal under the rugby-style rules. Interference remains strictly illegal in both rugby codes to this day. The prohibition of interference in the rugby game stems from the game's strict enforcement of its offsides rulewhich prohibited any player on the team with possession of the ball to loiter between the ball and the goal.
At first, American players would find creative ways of aiding the runner by pretending to accidentally knock into defenders trying to tackle the runner. When Walter Camp witnessed this tactic being employed against his Yale team, he was at first appalled, but the next year had adopted the blocking tactics for his own team.
During the s and s, teams developed increasingly complex blocking tactics including the interlocking interference technique known as the Flying wedge or "V-trick formation", which was developed by Lorin F. Deland and first introduced by Harvard in a collegiate game against Yale in Despite its effectiveness, it was american casino guide barnes and noble two seasons later in through the efforts of the rule committee led by Parke H.
Davisbecause of its contribution to serious injury. After his playing career at Yale ended inCamp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from through On November 23,representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in The rules were based largely on the Rugby Football Union 's code from England, though spirit mountain casino online slots important difference was the replacement of a kicked goal with a touchdown as the primary means of scoring a change that would later occur in rugby itself, favoring the try as the main scoring event.
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